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MOUTH

There are several different types of tumours found in the mouth. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.


Melanoma is a benign tumour is known as melanocytoma and is rare in this location. A malignant tumour is known as a malignant melanoma or melanosarcoma. Melanomas originate in the cells called melanocytes which produce a pigment called melanin.


Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma is a malignant tumour of the outer layer of the gum / lining of the mouth / tongue.  This tumour is more aggressive when it grows in the mouth.


Fibrosarcoma is a cancer of connective tissue cells. A fibroma is the benign form but not typically found in the mouth.


Osteosarcoma is a malignant cancer of the bone. It is less aggressive in the mouth compared to the legs.


Dental Tumours / Epulis These tumours form from the cells that hold teeth in place. They do not spread elsewhere in the body and do not have a malignant form. The acanthomatous type is very invasive. Older Boxer dogs commonly have fibromatous ones - they are often easily removed or if very slow growing may not need treatment.


NASAL

There iare four different types of nasal tumours. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.

Chrondosarcoma is a cancer of cells that produce cartilage. The benign form, a chrondroma, is rare.  For more detailed information, click here.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma is a cancer of the cells that line the inside of the nose. There are two types:  

1. At the very front of the nose, usually just visible to the naked eye, and commonly in Retrievers. This can spread and is always invasive; some cases can be cured by surgery.

2. At the back of the nose – you can’t see it but instead will notice sneezing and bloody discharge out the nose. It usually doesn’t spread but is deeply invasive throughout the nose and cannot be cured surgically


See a video of the removal of a nasal squamous cell carcinoma


Soft Tissue Sarcoma growing deep in the nose- you can’t see it but instead will notice sneezing and bloody discharge out the nose. These are a group of tumours that all form from any type of connective tissue.


Osteosarcoma is a cancer of the cells that form bone. The benign form, an osteoma is very rare.






Osteosarcoma - A cancer of the cells that form bone. The benign form, an osteoma is very rare.

Mast Cell Tumours originate in the bone marrow early in life before travelling to the skin and intestine. Mast cells are an integral part of the immune system , A benign tumour is known as a mastocytoma .  The nasal form is pretty rare. We’re hoping to publish a national collection of five.

OESOPHAGUS

There are three different types of tumours that can occur in the oesophagus. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma is also known as Oesophageal Carcinoma. There is no benign form in this location. A lump won’t be visible from the outside. Symptoms include pain on swallowing.


Lymphoma is very rare in this location.


Soft tissue sarcoma is very rare in this location.



OVARY

There are several different types of tumours found in the ovary. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.

When dogs are sterilised, they usually have their ovaries and uterus removed and ovarian cancer cannot occur. Types include:


Papillary adenoma is benign. The malignant form is papillary carcinoma. It originates in the glandular cells that work in the ovary

Cystadenoma is benign and formed from the network of blood vessels that nourish the ovaries, these are fragile, but removable.

Undifferentiated carcinoma is malignant. The cells are so bizarre that it is not possible to tell what part of the ovary they formed from.


Hormonal cell tumours include:

Thecoma is benign

Luteoma is benign

Granulosa Cell tumour  is usually benign but some can spread

Germ cell tumours  derived from the cells that form the eggs in the ovary

Dysgerminoma  usually benign

Teratoma is benign and the malignant form is teratocarcinoma. For these tumours the cells can actually differentiate, or develop into various tissue types including hair or teeth.