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SPINE

There are 8 classes of different tumour types within the spine. All are best diagnosed by MRI. CT is not ideal but often adequate. Xrays rarely are useful. Spinal tumours are often more invasive than in people and surgery is typically not curative. The distinction between benign and malignant is less useful for tumours of the spine; even if a tumour doesn’t spread and grows fairly slowly (being ‘benign’) it will still crush the surrounding nerves leading to death or paralysis. The 4 most common types are:

Meningioma formed from the meninges which are the cells that wrap around the brain

Glial tumours formed from the cells that surround and protect the nerve cells. Types include Astrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Oligoastrocytoma

Immune system tumours such as lymphoma, histiocytic sarcoma, neoplastic reticulosis

Metastatic cancer are any cancers that begin elsewhere in body. Most common are haemangiosarcoma and carcinoma.

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SPLEEN

There are several different types of splenic cancer. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.


Haemangiosarcoma originates from the cells that line the blood vessels. It is also known as endothelium haemangiosarcoma or angiosarcoma. 


Lymphoma is a cancer of lymphocytes which are white blood cells. The forms that occur in the spleen are either part of an aggressive body wide disease OR as a much less aggressive indolent form of lymphoma.


Soft tissue sarcoma are a group of tumours that all form from any type of connective tissue. They therefore can have lots of names but the most common is fibrosarcoma. Benign tumours are uncommon and end in -oma rather than -sarcoma (e.g. fibroma, not fibrosarcoma).


Histiocytic Sarcoma There are several different types of histiocytes in the body. The ones that cause this cancer are known as interstitial histiocytes. The disease is malignant and is described as localised or disseminated.



STOMACH

There are several different types of stomach cancer. Pathology testing must be undertaken to indicate which type of tumour is found. The correct treatment can only be administered in accordance with the tumour type, grading and staging.


Adenocarcinoma  2/3 of stomach cancers are of this type. It is malignant and usually spreads elsewhere in the body. The benign form, adenoma, is less common. These tumours form from the cells that line the stomach.


Soft tissue sarcoma including leiomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. These form from the connective tissue that holds everything together. Benign tumours are uncommon.


Lymphoma Unlike the cat, lymphoma is not a common stomach tumour of dogs. It is often throughout the belly or the body of the dog. Lymphoma is a cancer of lymphocytes which are white blood cells.


Plasmacytoma not common but it is often surgically curable. Plasma cells are the white blood cells that produce antibodies.